Precast concrete elements can be designed and manufactured with 3D surface finishes to achieve unique textures and/or profiles.
This can be done using specially made moulds, of any shape, which can incorporate patterns (using form liners) or use tiles, bricks, stone or void formers on the surface. Any smooth finish (off form or polished) or rough finish (exposed aggregate, etched, blasted or honed) can also be incorporated, as can colours (using pigment, stain or paint). Techniques like bush-hammered or hammered-nib finishes can also be applied.
An advantage of using a 3D surface pattern is that the pattern can self-shade a vertical element, thereby reducing thermal conductivity from the sun.
With the use of CAD/CAM/CAE technologies the possibilities are endless.